Make sure to add them in active code. Adding a spare php file with the WP-CLI command definition in /wordpress won’t work, because that code won’t be loaded by WP. Dropping the file into wp-content/plugins won’t work as well. Make it part of an active plugin, or use your theme’s functions.php.
I was to reverse a file for a challenge, MD5 hash 85c9feed0cb0f240a62b1e50d1ab0419.
The challenge was called mio cuggino, purposefully misspelled with two g letters. It asks for three numbers. The challenge led me to a brute force of the password with a Python script, learning how to interact with a subprocess stdin and stdout (SKIP to next section if you don’t care about context but only want the code).
Looking at the assembly with Radare, the first thing it does is to check that the numbers are non-negative and in increasing order. In details, it checks that:
- exactly three inputs have been provided;
- the first two are non-negative;
- the third is bigger than the second;
- the second is bigger than the first;
- the third is non-negative.
Very good, so the input pattern is three non-negative integers in increasing order. Fine. No clue about what those numbers should be though, yet.
Scroll the assembly just enough to unravel the magic.
A (pointer to) string is loaded into ebx, which contains the following Italian sentence:
Mi ha detto mio cuggino che una volta e’ stato co’ una che poi gli ha scritto sullo specchio benvenuto nell’AIDS, mio cuggino mio cuggino
The assembly basically takes the characters in the string that correspond to the first and second input (for ex, 0 as first input would map to the first char, M) and checks whether they are equal. If this is not satisfied, a Nope message is shown and the binary returns.
If this is satisfied, the same check is repeated with the third input (with the first one, although this doesn’t matter). If this is satisfied as well, a tricky sub.puts_640 function is called (with 5 inputs), and a Uhm message is shown.
Going to looking into that routine is absolutely useless as it’s completely unreadable, and even makes a bunch of additional calls that are further jumbled.
For a challenge in a university security class, I was given this file to crack: reverse1. I started with reverse0, which was considerably easier than the second one. In this post I will briefly explain how I tackled reverse1. I provided the files so you can you try on your own and then came back for hints if you are stuck! If you are new to this business, as I relatively am, I advise you to start from reverse0 and crack that first.
Hashes of reverse1 file:
MD5 – c22c985acb7ca0f373b7279138213158
SHA256 – cd56541a75657630a2a0c23724e55f70e7f4f77300faf18e8228cd2cffe8248e
Disassembling and hoping for the best
The first thing I did was to disassemble the file with Radare to have a look at the code.
#In a terminal
r2 -A ./reverse1
The assembly is quite jumbled up, and difficult to analyse all together. A quick look tells us that trying to crack the file just by reversing the assembly is no easy task, and actually a silly idea to begin with. There’s a cycle after the password is read from standard input, then some other instructions, then another cycle… it’s difficult to get what is going on…
Instead, let’s seek the Bad password print section, and see what should happen for the code to jump there. If we are lucky enough, we may find a bunch of final checks that will send over to the Bad password section. If we can find those, we may then look at those bits of assembly to understand how to avoid going there.
Scroll down enough, and down at the bottom I can see the Bad password part, starting at 0x080484f0.
Radare helps in showing two different arrows going into this address. The related comparisons are the following:
Need to convert a base 10 integer in a base 2 one? Or, at any rate, convert a number from one numeration system to another? In Ubuntu, the bc utility already integrates these features. It is usually already installed, so you don’t have to anything special.
Simply run bc, and enter the following commands:
Then, all subsequent number inputs will be simply converted to their base-2 representation.
If you want to get a conversion straight ahead, without going through the opening of bc, just enter the following from a terminal:
echo 'obase=2; ibase=10; 123' | bc
which will convert the number 123 from base 10 to base 2.
Of course, 2 and 10 can be replaced with any other possible base!